Issues

Notes; Issues Unresolved: Chapter Two

1. For my purposes here, I will use American Sign Language (ASL) and English as examples of national signed language and national spoken language, respectively. The relationship between the signed and spoken languages of other countries may not necessarily parallel that found in the United States and Canada (including Langue des Signes Québécoise [LSQ] and French). Therefore, researchers and educators in each country will have to determine for themselves how the arguments presented here have relevance for their particular setting.Return to text

2. The term sign is used here to refer to semiotic system, rather than lexical unit of sign language.Return to text

3. I want to be very clear when I use the term speech in the context of deaf individuals, particularly signing deaf individuals. Following Vygotsky, such speech refers to language in action, regardless of modality. Thus, egocentric and inner speech refer to the idiosyncratic, verbal thought that individuals use for themselves. This verbal thought is not intended for interpersonal communicative use, but for intramental functions that require some kind of verbal representation. However, there is disagreement as to the form of this inner speech (e.g. Conrad 1979; Mayer and Wells 1996).Return to text

4. Cummins (1981) maintained that both the quality and quantity of exposure to a second language are important determiners of eventual acquisition of that language. This is also true for first-language acquisition. Return to text

5. This is particularly true of hearing parents who themselves have parents and/or members of their extended family who are deaf. Return to text

6. Productively, SimCom can be sign-driven or speech-driven, depending on various internal and external factors including student comprehension, teacher skill in both languages, and communication demands of the moment (Stewart et al. 1990). Return to text

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