Chapter 2 of Lend Me Your Ear continued...

A (Partial) History of Deaf Education

banner 1990Sources: Gannon, Deaf Heritage; "Gallaudet"; Gallaudet, History of the
College
; Winzer, History of Special Education: From Isolation to Integration; and
my own memory. I repeat that this list is partial, in all senses of the word:
it selects for events that line up with my own senses of rhetoric and of literacy education.
ca. 355 b.c.e. Aristotle (Politics) advocates infanticide for "deformed" children;
Cicero follows suit in 55 b.c.e.
380–420 c.e. St. Augustine of Hippo claims "Faith comes by hearing"
and excludes deaf persons from Christian faith
533The Code of Justinian classifies deaf persons
(both separately and among all other disabled persons)
1578 Pedro Ponce de León undertakes educating deaf Spanish
nobility
1662The Royal Society of London inspires inquiry into the nature
of language and the teaching of deaf and blind persons
1720Daniel Defoe writes The History of the Life and Surprising Adventures of
Mr. Duncan Campbell
—the first popular book about
the lives of deaf persons
1745Jacob Rodrigues Pereire begins working with deaf students
1751Diderot publishes his study on deaf people
1760Abbé Charles Michel de l'Epée founds the Institute for the Deaf
in Paris
1779Pierre Desloges, a deaf man, defends deaf education based
on sign language in a widely circulated pamphlet
1789Abbé Sicard takes over the Institute for the Deaf in Paris
1799Jean-Marc Itard, trying out the language philosophies of Condillac,
begins working with "Victor," a feral boy who cannot speak and is kept at the
Institute for the Deaf in Paris
1817The Reverend Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet opens the Connecticut
Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons (first American
school for the deaf); educates Alice Cogswell, a deaf girl; and introduces
manual methods for deaf education
1850sPrinting becomes popular trade for deaf persons (primarily
through training in trade schools)
1851Thomas Gallaudet founds first American church for the deaf
1857Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind is
incorporated on two acres of land in Washington, D.C.
1864National Deaf Mute College (also known as Columbia Institution
for the Deaf and Dumb) founded in Washington, D.C. (later Gallaudet College,
then Gallaudet University)
1864Alexander Melville Bell designs "Visible Speech"
1867Clarke Institution founded (premier oralist school) and full-fledged
campaign for oral methods begins
1871First successful aural surgery
1871Alexander Graham Bell begins teaching his father's method,
"Visible Speech," to deaf students
1880Milan Conference, an international meeting of educators of the
deaf, outlaws use of sign language (manual methods) to teach
deaf students
1883A. G. Bell delivers and a year later publishes Memoirs upon
the Formation of a Deaf Variety of the Human Race
, a eugenicist tract
decrying the marriage of (and potential child-rearing by) deaf couples
1886A. G. Bell tests hearing of Washington, D.C., students (first audiograms)
1890sA. G. Bell and Edward Miner Gallaudet lead "communications
debate" between oralism and manualism, respectively
1893National Deaf Mute College renamed Gallaudet College at the
request of the alumni association
1895A. G. Bell and E. M. Gallaudet square off at Convention of
American Instructors of the Deaf
1909First compulsory school attendance laws for deaf (and blind)
children enacted
1954By an act of Congress, the corporate name of the Columbia
Institution becomes Gallaudet College
1958 Public Law 85-926 provides grants for training special education
personnel
1963The Division of Handicapped Children and Youth is established
within the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
1969Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD) established on
Gallaudet's campus
1970Kendall Demonstration Elementary School (KDES) established
on Gallaudet's campus; "Deaf Studies" chair established at Gallaudet
1975Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act,
is passed by Congress
1980sLike most U.S. colleges, Gallaudet has significant enrollment
increase; cochlear implants offered
1986Gallaudet College becomes Gallaudet University; the Education of
the Deaf Act (PL 99-371) signed
1988"Deaf President Now" protest—students close Gallaudet University
campus; Irving King Jordan becomes first deaf president of Gallaudet
University; Philip Bravin becomes first deaf chairman
of the Board of Trustees
1989International "Deaf Way Conference and Festival" held at Gallaudet
Harvey Corson appointed as Gallaudet's first deaf provost
1990The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) signed into law
1990PL 94-142 revised and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities

Education Act (IDEA)

1993 presentGallaudet University enrollment begins to decline—federal funding
declines and programs, services, personnel, departments are cut
1998Gallaudet students actively campaign to replace a recently
reelected English Department chair, purportedly because of her politics and pedagogy in literacy instruction
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