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American Annals of the Deaf

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Illusions of Equality: Deaf Americans in School and Factory 1850-1950

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9. William J. Marra, ‘‘The Federal Adult Education Project For The Deaf,’’ Annals 82 (November 1937): 406–10; ‘‘Kansas City, MO.,’’ DMJ (22 July 1937): 5. For background on Marra, see Georgetta Graybill, ‘‘A Man of Many and Varied Talents; Pioneer in Adult Education for the Deaf,’’ Deaf American (September 1971): 3–6. In addition, programs were also held in Chicago, Oklahoma, and New Jersey. See Alan B. Crammatte, ‘‘Vocational Guidance in Schools for the Deaf,’’ Annals 84 (March 1939): 404.

10. On Tom Anderson, likely the most influential advocate for improved vocational instruction, see Tom L. Anderson, ‘‘The Handwriting on the Wall,’’ Proceedings of the Thirtieth Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1938), 211, 211–15 (hereafter, Thirtieth CAID). Deaf writers lashed out at these policies in the pages of Vocational Teachers, an independent national periodical edited by Anderson. See ‘‘Salt Risin,’’’ Vocational Teachers (June 1931): 21.

11. Margaret McKellar, ‘‘Suggested Vocational Training Courses for Girls,’’ Vocational Teachers (March 1931): 6–9.

12. As one frustrated respondent explained, ‘‘There are lots of things deaf girls can do. They only need a chance, which they never get.’’ Bertha Peterson and Clara Brown, ‘‘Home Economics in Schools for the Deaf and the Marital and Occupational Status of the Alumni,’’ Annals 78 (March 1933): 197.

13. For a frank discussion, see the views of the superintendent of Louisiana’s residential school, L. R. Divine, ‘‘Trades Open to Deaf Girls in the South,’’ Thirtieth CAID, 68–70.

14. On Indiana, see Robert Baughman, ‘‘Trades Open to Deaf Girls in Indianapolis,’’ Thirtieth CAID, 70–72. For broadly comparable reports, see Leila Gerry, ‘‘Vocational Placements of Deaf Girls in the East,’’ Thirtieth CAID, 72–75; ‘‘Present Occupations of Former Pupils,’’ Fanwood Journal (1 February 1933): 11.

15. On instruction to deaf African Americans in Louisiana, see ‘‘Who Will Give This Little Boy a Chance?’’ Volta Review (October 1937): 548; ‘‘New State School for Negro Deaf in Louisiana Started,’’ Ohio Chronicle (24 December 1938): 1 (reprint, Annals). On the position of deaf women in Georgia, see Georgia State Department of Public Welfare, Georgia’s Deaf (Atlanta, Georgia: Report on the United States Work Projects Administration of Georgia Official Project, 665-34-3-90), 18–23.

16. Warren M. Smaltz, ‘‘The Deaf in Modern Industry,’’ Eighteenth Triennial Convention of the National Association of the Deaf (n.p., 1937), 67, 63 (hereafter, Eighteenth NAD). On Smaltz, see Berg, A Missionary Chronicle, 166–67. For an illustration of Superintendent Elbert Gruver’s views, see Elbert Gruver, ‘‘A New Emphasis in the Education of Deaf Children,’’ Vocational Teachers (October 1932): 1.

17. Norman G. Scarvie, ‘‘Practical Training For Underprivileged Pupils,’’ Twenty-ninth CAID, 136. For a comparable opinion, see Arthur G. Norris, ‘‘A Review and a Prophecy,’’ Twenty-seventh CAID, 36–41.

18. Roy Conkling ended publication of the paper in December 1942. On Conkling and the paper, see Ohio Chronicle (5 December 1942): 1, 2.

19. ‘‘Keep Them within Bonds,’’ American Deaf Citizen (24 March 1933): 4. See also, ‘‘It’s Our ‘Language,’’’ American Deaf Citizen (12 April 1929): 2.


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