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Illusions of Equality: Deaf Americans in School and Factory 1850-1950

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20. On Idaho, see NAD Bulletin (December 1934): 2; ‘‘NAD Activities,’’ NAD Bulletin (January 1935): 1; J. F. M., ‘‘Combined System Wins Out in Idaho,’’ NAD Bulletin (May 1935): 2. On Virginia, see ‘‘Ouster Proceedings Start,’’ American Deaf Citizen (6 April 1934): 1; William Schaub, ‘‘President’s Address,’’ Proceedings of the Seventeenth Triennial Convention of the National Association of the Deaf (n.p., 1934), 7–11 (hereafter, Seventeenth NAD); ‘‘Executive Board Report’’ Eighteenth NAD, 21–24; ‘‘No Deaf Graduate From Virginia School,’’ American Deaf Citizen (10 June 1938): 1 (reprint, Staunton Evening Leader); ‘‘Alumni Vindicated,’’ Modern Silents (May 1939): 9 (reprint, Staunton News Leader). On Montana, see Marcus L. Kenner, ‘‘President’s Address,’’ Eighteenth NAD, 11–12.

21. Minimized, if mentioned at all, in school records and only intermittently cited in mainstream newspapers, most accounts of these contests were recorded in the publications of deaf organizations whose members led these challenges.

22. ‘‘Experimentation is Condemned by Deaf,’’ Modern Silents (January 1938): 14 (reprint, Dallas News, (12 December 1937). Deaf activists had long opposed Scott. See ‘‘Investigation of Deaf Association’s Charges Made on May 5 to 7,’’ Modern Silents (September 1938): 4–7.

23. ‘‘Protests and Charges by Association before the House Eleemosynary Institutions Investigating Committee Corroborated by Sworn Testimony and Evidence,’’ Modern Silents (June 1938): 3–4.

24. ‘‘PROTESTS AND CHARGES as Presented by the Texas Association of the Deaf,’’ Modern Silents (December 1938): 4–5.

25. On the investigation, see ‘‘Protests and Charges by Association,’’ 3–4; ‘‘Investigation of Deaf Association’s Charges Made on May 5 to 7,’’ 4–7; ‘‘Additional Information on Investigation,’’ Modern Silents (October–November 1938): 8.

26. On Scott’s claim regarding the lipreading abilities of students, see ‘‘Additional Information On Investigation,’’ 8. Scott’s assertions exceeded the estimates of even the most optimistic oralist professionals.

27. ‘‘Investigation of Deaf Association’s Charges Made on May 5 to 7,’’ Modern Silents (September 1938): 4–7.

28. ‘‘Proceedings of the Special Called Convention,’’ Modern Silents (August 1938): 9–10.

29. ‘‘Investigation of the Texas School for the Deaf,’’ Modern Silents (October–November 1938): 2.

30. Governor-elect Lee O’Daniel publicly questioned Scott’s competence and endorsed the investigation. ‘‘Deaf Fight for Justice and a Fair Deal,’’ Modern Silents (December 1938): 6; ‘‘Children Sent Home for Recounting Incidents of Cruel Treatment at Investigation,’’ Modern Silents (January 1939): 3; ‘‘Representative Ross Harding Decries Cruelty to Deaf Children,’’ Modern Silents (February 1939): 4.

31. ‘‘Legislative Committee Approves Resolution Recommending Ouster, Deaf Association Victorious,’’ Modern Silents (March–April 1939): 9; ‘‘Oust Scott March By Pupils Averted,’’ Modern Silents (March–April 1939): 12 (reprint, Austin Statesman, 24 February 1938).

32. ‘‘Superintendent-Elect E. R. Wright,’’ Modern Silents (September 1939): 2; ‘‘An Open Message,’’ Modern Silents (September 1939): 3.

33. On the NAD, begin with Gannon, Deaf Heritage, 264–65; Editorial, DMJ (24 July 1930): 2; George Veditz, ‘‘The Genesis of the National Association of the Deaf,’’ DMJ (1 June 1933): 1; Altor Sedlow to DMJ (28 March 1934): 6; Frank Andrewjeski, ‘‘The Ailing NAD,’’ American Deaf Citizen (8 June 1934): 1. Marcus Kenner, elected President of the NAD in August 1934, was aware of these criticisms. See Marcus L. Kenner, ‘‘The Missing Link,’’ Seventeenth NAD, 36.


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