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Contents of the Summer 2016 Issue, Volume 161, No. 3 of the Annals

e d i t o r i a l
299 Made to Hear
a r t i c l e s
303 Similarities Between Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Hearing Students’ Awareness of Affective Words’ Valence in Written Language
Degao Li, Fan Zhang, and Xihong Zeng

an effective priming task was used with two cohorts of college students, one deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), the other hearing, in two experiments. The same set of affective-word targets, preceded by “ ” in Experiment 1 but by affective-word primes of the same valence as the targets in Experiment 2, were presented vertically above or below the screen center. Stimuli that preceded the targets were shown at the screen center. D/HH participants generally performed more poorly than hearing participants, but both groups performed similarly in that both did better on the positive targets than on the negative in both experiments, and on supporting metaphorical associations between valence and vertical positions (Meier & Robinson, 2004), as indicated by reaction times, in Experiment 2. The researchers concluded that D/HH and hearing college students perform similarly in developing cognition-grounded representations of affective words in written language.

314 Understanding the Relationship Between Teacher Behavior and Motivation in Students with Acquired Deafblindness
Ineke Haakma, Marleen Janssen, and Alexander Minnaert

because little is known about teacher-student relationships that involve students with acquired deafblindness, the authors performed a multiple case study with a multiple-method design to investigate the relationship between need-supportive teaching behaviors and student engagement. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), they analyzed video observations of interactions. It was found that teachers’ provision of structure, autonomy support, and involvement often cooccurs with higher levels of student engagement. Moreover, varying degrees of need support over time seem to result in varying levels of student engagement. Examples are provided of need-supportive teaching behaviors that can be used to foster the motivation of students with acquired deafblindness.

327 Analysis of Interaction and Attention Processes in a Child With Congenital Deafblindness
Denise Cintra Villas Boas, Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira, Maria Cecília de Moura, Shirley Rodrigues Maia, and Isabel Amaral

children with deafblindness need support to be able to understand the world and to have access to information. The authors analyzed a dyad consisting of a child with congenital deafblindness and a specialized teacher. The study included participant observations and audiovisual recordings. It was found that the child showed attention to the teacher in activities involving music and rhythm. As potential forms of nonverbal communication, the child presented vocalization, touch, body contact, body movements, facial expressions, and tears. The teacher’s forms of communication were verbal, touch, visual, rhythm, and sign language. It was concluded that a significant communication partner is essential to identify, interpret, and respond to attention and communicative behaviors. Use of other forms of communication must comply with individual characteristics so that the child with deafblindness can receive information from the environment through these senses and thus be guaranteed access to the world.

342 The English-Language and Reading Achievement of a Cohort of Deaf Students Speaking and Signing Standard English: A Preliminary Study
Diane Corcoran Nielsen, Barbara Luetke, Meigan McLean, and Deborah Stryker

research suggests that English-language proficiency is critical if students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are to read as their hearing peers. One explanation for the traditionally reported reading achievement plateau when students are D/HH is the inability to hear insalient English morphology. Signing Exact English can provide visual access to these features. The authors investigated the English morphological and syntactic abilities and reading achievement of elementary and middle school students at a school using simultaneously spoken and signed Standard American English facilitated by intentional listening, speech, and language strategies. A developmental trend (and no plateau) in language and reading achievement was detected; most participants demonstrated average or above-average English. Morphological awareness was prerequisite to high test scores; speech was not significantly correlated with achievement; language proficiency, measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), predicted reading achievement.

369 Perceptions of Social Networks by Adults Who Are Deafblind
Katrina Arndt and Amy Parker

findings are presented from a descriptive qualitative study of 10 adults who were deafblind who were interviewed about their social lives. Additional data were collected from a discussion board and e-mails from the study participants. Three findings emerged from the data: (a) Navigating adaptations was a significant part of socialization. (b) Gaps existed in work, family, and formal support networks. (c) The participants drew upon resiliency and advocacy to manage these gaps.

384 Employment and Adults Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Current Status and Experiences of Barriers, Accommodations, and Stress in the Workplace
Renée Punch

in an integrative review of of the literature covering the period 2004–2016, the author presents a current picture of the situation of people who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) relative to employment and careers—particularly the barriers, facilitators, and stress levels experienced by working DHH adults. First, an overview is provided of findings from recent reports on employment outcomes for people who are DHH. Second, the author reviews the literature on employment and workplace barriers, facilitators, and accommodations for people who are DHH, and relates findings about DHH people’s workplace-related stress and fatigue levels and the associated issues of job demand, job control, and social support in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings, in particular the ways in which barriers to full participation of DHH people in the labor market can be addressed.

b o o k  r e v i e w
398 Finally! A Formula for Making Positive Changes in Deaf Education
Leala Holcomb