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Contents of the Spring 2016 Issue, Volume 161, No. 1 of the Annals

e d i t o r i a l
3 d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Learners: DML, DLL, ELL, EL, ESL . . . or Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
  s p e c i a l  i s s u e  i n t r o d u c t i o n
8 A New Kind of Heterogeneity: What We Can Learn From d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners
Joanna E. Cannon, Caroline Guardino, and Erin Gallimore

the present article introduces a special issue of the American Annals of the Deaf. Students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing and come from homes where a language other than English or American Sign Language is used constitute 19.4%–35.0% of the U.S. d/Dhh population (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2013). The authors propose moving beyond the standardized use of the designation English Language Learners to embrace terminology encompassing these learners as diverse and rich in language: d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs). The authors present (a) a discussion of terminology, (b) an overview of available demographic data, (c) a synopsis of the special issue, (d) themes across three case study vignettes, and (e) overall recommendations to advance curriculum design and pedagogy for DMLs. Questions are posed challenging researchers and practitioners to investigate theory, research, and pedagogy that can enhance practice with DMLs and their families.

  a r t i c l e s
17 d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners: The Development of Communication and Language
Lianna Pizzo

the author is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are d/Dhh. Working with d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs) and their families presents a unique challenge to early intervention professionals: ensuring that families have adequate information and resources to make informed choices, particularly regarding communication. The author presents information and research related to (a) family and professional partnerships, (b) cultural contexts for early intervention, (c) family communication decisions and linguistic diversity, (d) emerging research on DMLs, (e) considerations for early intervention providers and interpreters who work with culturally and linguistically diverse d/Dhh infants and toddlers, and (f) cultural reflections on ensuring smooth transitions from early intervention into preschool programs.

33 Early Intervention: A Multicultural Perspective on d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners
Sandy K. Bowen

today’s pluralistic society examines the theory and research relevant to educating d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners (DMLs). There is minimal research on this population, yet a synthesis of related theory, research, and practice on spoken-language bilinguals can be used to add to the body of knowledge on these learners. Specifically, the author reports on three major areas: (a) population characteristics of DMLs, (b) theories relevant to understanding the language development of DMLs, and (c) considerations for programs in designing and implementing educational services for DMLs. In the interest of ensuring that children receive the foundation for linguistic success, aspects of linguistically responsive teaching (Lucas & Villegas, 2013) are addressed, with a focus on adopting an asset-based perspective on educating DMLs that honors all of a child’s language, identity, and cultural memberships.

43 Sociocultural and Academic Considerations for School-Age d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners: A Case Study of a Deaf Latina
Sharon Baker and Jessica Scott

for decades research has focused on American Sign Language/English bilingual education for d/Deaf and hard of hearing students whose families used English or ASL. However, a growing population of d/Dhh children come from households where languages other than English (e.g., Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese) are used. In a longitudinal case study, the authors document the K–12 educational pathway of a deaf Latina student. Anecdotal records, semistructured interviews, assessment data, and document reviews of the participant’s school and clinical records are used to develop the case study. The findings provide the basis for recommendations for future research and for critical factors to consider to improve the education of d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs). These include ensuring appropriate educational placements, addressing early communication and language needs, determining effective instructional techniques and assessments, strengthening the L1 to support L2 learning, and providing students with opportunities to learn their heritage language.

56 Assessment and d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners: Considerations and Promising Practices
Lianna Pizzo and Amanda Chilvers

the authors address considerations and promising practices relating to assessment of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners. DMLs’ unique culture(s), language(s), and learning needs must be considered when assessments of this population are being planned, conducted, and interpreted. The authors address theory and research on (a) general considerations for the overarching assessment process, (b) specific assessment approaches used to assess DMLs, and (c) assessment of language proficiency for diverse language learners. In addition, basic recommendations for the assessment of DMLs are made, including increased availability of assessments in various languages, use of multiple sources of individual and family data, assessment of all languages, and incorporation of a strong assessment component (that includes nondiscrimination practices) into teacher preparation programs.

67 Case Studies of Multilingual/Multicultural Asian Deaf Adults: Strategies for Success
Qiuying Wang, Jean Andrews, Hsiu Tan Liu, and Chun Jung Liu

case studies of adult d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners (DMLs) are few, especially studies of DMLs who learn more than one sign language and read logographic and alphabetic scripts. To reduce this paucity, two descriptive case studies are presented. Written questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and self-appraisals of language-use rubrics were used to explore (a) the language and literacy histories of two adult Asian DMLs who had learned multiple languages: Chinese (spoken/written), English (written), Chinese Sign Language, and American Sign Language; and (b) how each language was used in different cultural communities with diverse conversational partners. Home literacy environment, family support, visual access to languages, peer and sibling support, role models, encouragement, perseverance, and Deaf identity all played vital roles in the participants’ academic success. The findings provide insights into the acquisition of multiple languages and bi-literacy through social communication and academic content.

89 Increasing Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Deaf Education Teacher Preparation Programs
Joanna E. Cannon and John L. Luckner

as the field of education of the d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) continues to diversify, postsecondary institutions must pay close attention not only to the changing needs of d/Dhh students but to the practitioners they are preparing to serve this population. Students who are d/Dhh and come from homes where a language other than English or American Sign Language is used—d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs)—constitute 19.4%–35.0% of the d/Dhh student population (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2013). In the present article, part of a special American Annals of the Deaf issue on DMLs, the authors review demographic trends, examine the theory behind teacher effectiveness and culturally responsive teaching, provide examples from research on effective components of teacher preparation programs and discuss how they align with the field’s certification standards, and recommend practices for programs and teachers to meet these standards within the field’s ever-changing landscape.

104 Deafness and Diversity: Reflections and Directions
Caroline Guardino and Joanna E. Cannon

concluding a two-part American Annals of the Deaf special issue on deafness and diversity (DAD), the editors provide reflections and guidance to the field regarding d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) children with a disability (DWD; e.g., learning or intellectual disability, autism) and d/Dhh children from homes where parents use a language other than English or American Sign Language (d/Dhh Multilingual Learners; DMLs). Contributing authors addressed the application of theory, research, and practice to five topics: (a) early intervention, (b) communication/language, (c) assessment, (d) transition, (e) teacher preparation. An overview of the main recommendations of the contributors and editors is presented in an effort to advance research and pedagogy with these learners. In conclusion, the editors discuss the “Radical Middle” approach (Easterbrooks & Maiorana-Basas, 2015) to working with students who are DAD: providing learners with all options for academic, social, and emotional success.