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American Annals of the Deaf

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Black Deaf Students: A Model for Educational Success

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TABLE 5. Protective Factors and Processes in the Community (Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors,
Cultural Role Models, and Church Members)

Protective factors


Caring and supportive relationships Acceptance of African American culture
  Acceptance of deaf culture
  Technological assistive devices
  High quality services
Open and ongoing communication Fluency in American Sign Language
  Use of communication mode of child
  Active listening
  Meaningful feedback
High expectations High goals and standards
  Rewards and recognition
  Postsecondary planning
Challenging educational experiences Rigorous coursework
  Development of critical thinking skills
  Classes with diverse groups of students
  Coursework applicable to life experiences
  Culturally relevant coursework
Discipline and structure Clear and consistent expectations
Equitable rules and consequences

TABLE 6. Proposed Resilience Program


Program components

Program partners

Infancy to elementary school Involve parents in school and community program. Parent/school/community
  Hold sign language/Deaf awareness classes. School/community/deaf adults
  Hold infancy and childhood development workshops. School/community
  Create challenging classes. School/community
  Provide mentoring programs and other activities that expose students to successful African American deaf and hard of hearing adults. Parent/school/community
  Create social skills groups. School/community
  Provide independent living skills activities. Parent/school/community
  Initiate cognitive and physical development after school activities. Parent/school/community
  Develop and disseminate infancy and child development materials. School/community
  Incorporate culturally relevant information into the curriculum and community activities. School/community
  Create a transition program to elementary school. Parent/school/community
  Provide on-site community agency services. School/community
Elementary to high school Continue with age-appropriate components above and add the following:  
  Develop childhood to adolescent workshops. Parent/school/community
  Create and disseminate adolescent development materials. School/community
  Transition to high school activities. Parent/school/community
High school to college Continue with age-appropriate components above and add the following:  
  Provide access to advanced classes and college courses. School/community
  Hold adolescent to young adulthood development workshops. Parent/school/community
  Provide work experiences. School/community
  Transition to college activities. Parent/school/community
Note: Community includes postsecondary programs

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