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Akamatsu, C. T. 1985. Fingerspelling formulae: A word is more or less than the sum of its letters. In SLR ’83: Sign language research, ed. W. Stokoe and V. Volterra, 126–32. Silver Spring, Md.: Linstok.

Ann, J. 2001. Bilingualism and language contact. In The sociolinguistics of sign language, ed. C. Lucas, 33–60. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Aronoff, M., I. Meir, and W. Sandler. 2005. The paradox of sign language morphology. Language 81(2): 301–44.

Auer, P., ed. 1998. Code switching in conversation. New York: Routledge.

Battison, R. 1978. Lexical borrowing in American Sign Language. Silver Spring, Md.: Linstok.

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Boyes Braem, P. 2001. Functions of the mouthing component in the signing of deaf early and late learners of Swiss German Sign Language. In Foreign vocabulary in sign languages: A cross-linguistic investigation of word formation, ed. D. Brentari, 1–47. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Brentari, D., and C. A. Padden. 2001. Native and foreign vocabulary in American Sign Language: A lexicon with multiple origins. In Foreign vocabulary in sign languages: A cross-linguistic investigation of word formation, ed. D. Brentari, 87–119. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Brown, P., and S. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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———. 2003b. Relationships between gestures and signed languages: Indicating participants in action. In Cross-linguistic perspectives in sign language research: Selected papers from TISLR 2000, ed. A. Baker, B. vad den Bogaerde, and O. Crasborn, 95–117. Hamburg: Signum.

Clyne, M. 2003. Dynamics of language contact. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cokely, D. 1983. When is a pidgin not a pidgin? Sign Language Studies 38: 1–24.

Cormier, K. 2002. Grammaticization of indexic signs: How American Sign Language expresses numerosity. PhD diss., University of Texas–Austin.

Davis, J. 1989. Distinguishing language contact phenomena in ASL interpretation. In The sociolinguistics of the deaf community, ed. C. Lucas, 85–102. San Diego: Academic Press.

———. 1990. Interpreting in a language contact situation: The case of English-to-ASL interpretation. PhD diss., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

de Jorio, A. 2000. Gesture in Naples and classical antiquity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Efron, D. 1941. Gesture and environment. Morningside Heights, N.Y.: King’s Crown Press.

Ekman, P., and W. V. Friesen. 1969. The repertoire of nonverbal behavioral categories: Origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica 1:49–98.

Eldridge, J. 1996. Code switching in a Turkish secondary school. English Language Teaching Journal 50: 303–11.

Fischer, S. 1996. By the numbers: Language-internal evidence for creolization. International Review of Sign Linguistics 1–22.

Frishberg, N. 1975. Arbitrariness and iconicity. Language 51: 696–715.

Groce, N. E. 1985. Everyone here spoke sign language. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

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