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American Annals of the Deaf

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A New Civil Right: Telecommunications Equality for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Americans

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15. “Ford Delivers Statement Supporting Captioning,” NCLD Newsletter 1 (fall 1976): 6.

16. Amendment of Subpart E, Part 73 of the Commission’s Rules and Regulations to Reserve Line 21 of the Vertical Blanking Interval of the Television Broadcast Signal for Captioning for the Deaf, Report and Order, Dkt. 20693, FCC 76-1134, 63 FCC 2d 378 (December 20, 1976). Hereinafter cited as Line 21 Order.

17. Amendment of Part 73 of the Rules to Establish Requirements for Captioning of Emergency Messages on Television, Dkt 20659, 61 FCC 2d 18 (September 15, 1976), recon. denied, 62 FCC 2d 565 (1977).

18. Line 21 Order, 63 FCC 2d, 389, 445 (1976).

19. “Teletext Background Information,” CBS/Broadcast Group.

20. “Good Times Ahead!” NCLD Newsletter 1 (January 1976): 7. CBS even sent copies of the broadcast to NCLD.

21. Larry Grossman, PBS President, letter to CBS President John Backe, March 22, 1977.

22. Arnold & Porter and Touche Ross & Col, “A Suggested Management and Organization Plan for Captioning Public and Commercial Television Programs” (June 1978). Michael Curzan of Arnold & Porter was instrumental in the development of this plan.

23. NCI News (November 13, 1979).

24. “Commission to Receive Briefing on Status of Captioning for the Deaf in April 5 Meeting,” FCC Public Notice, March 29, 19799.

25. “Closed Captioning Participating Groups,” NCI News (undated), 5; John E.D. Ball, “The Visual Voice,” The Lion Magazine(1980).

26. “Sponsors Rush to Caption TV commercials,” Business Week (June 2, 1980): 104E.

27. Ibid.

28. CBS Broadcast Group, “CBS/Broadcast Group and Public Broadcasting Stations Announce Plans for a Program/Audience Test of Teletext in Los Angeles” (November 13, 1980).

29. “Sponsors Rush to Caption,”104E.

30. The specific statutory obligation is for television broadcasters to serve “the public interest, convenience and necessity.” 47 U.S.C. §§307(c); 309.

31. Ascertainment of Community Problems by Broadcast Applicants, Dkt. 19715, FCC 75-540, 53 FCC 2d 3 (May 15, 1975), based on Primer on Ascertainment of Community Problems by Broadcast Applicants, Dkt. 18774, FCC 71-176, 27 FCC 2d 650 (February 23, 1971). See also Renewal Primer, Ascertainment of Community Problems by Broadcast Applicants, First Report and Order, Dkt. 19715, FCC 75-1361, 57 FCC 2d 418 (January 7, 1976). Although early ascertainment requirements originally pertained only to commercial stations, this was later expanded to noncommercial broadcasters. Ascertainment of Community Problems by Noncommercial Educational Broadcasters, 58 FCC 2d 526 (1976).

32. A list of these community groups, also called “socio-economic elements,” can be found at Renewal Primer Appendix D, 57 FCC 2d 418, 447 (1976).


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