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American Annals of the Deaf

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A New Civil Right: Telecommunications Equality for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Americans

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47. District Court Slip Opinion, No. CV 78-4715 (November 17, 1981) (Gottfried II Slip Opinion).

48. Ibid., Conclusions of Law ¶4; See also ¶9.

49. Ibid., ¶10.

50. Ibid., ¶13; Findings of Fact ¶44.

51. Ibid., Conclusions of Law, ¶12.

52. Greater Los Angeles Council on Deafness, Inc. v. Community Television of Southern California, 719 F.2d 1017,1028 (9th Cir. 1983), cert denied, Gottfried v. United States, 467 U.S. 1252 (1984); reh’g denied, 468 U.S. 1224 (1964).

53. KCET-TV was a grant recipient under the Public Telecommunications Facilities Program, a program operated by the Commerce Department’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration, which awarded money to public television stations to acquire and install public telecommunications facilities. 47 U.S.C. §§390-393; 15 C.F.R. §2301, et. seq.

54. Greater Los Angeles Council on Deafness, Inc. v. Baldridge, 827 F.2d 1353 (9th Cir. 1987).

55. See 15 C.F.R. §8b (prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities by NTIA grant recipients pursuant to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ptfp.

56. Donald E. Ledwig, president and CEO, CPB, letter to Senator Tom Harkin, January 11, 1990.

57. “Introduction, Local News Captioning Conference, 3.

58. Edward C. Carney, “Captioning: Growth and Responsibility,” Caption (fall 1981): 4.

59. “Live Captioned News Becomes a Reality,” Caption (fall 1981): 3.

60. Karen Peltz Strauss, e-mail exchanges with Jeff Hutchins, November 17–18, 2005; Norwood, “Development and Growth of Closed Captioned Television,” 97. See generally, Linda D. Miller, “What is Real-Time Captioning and How Can I Use It?” SHHH (January/February 1989): 7–10.

61. Some saw ABC’s involvement in early captioning efforts as its way to gain a competitive advantage in the race for television viewers. Lawrence K. Grossman, “My Strange Involvement with Closed-Captioning,” Local News Captioning Conference, 115.

62. “Programming Milestones, NCI’s Proud History of Captioning Facts,” NCi fyi (March 12, 1993). In a case concerning the educational rights of deaf children, Joe Karlovits became the first court reporter to successfully try out the new real-time technology before the U.S. Supreme Court.

63. Albert T. Pimentel, “CBS and Deaf People,” Deaf American (April 1981): 3.

64. Phil Bravin, e-mail to the author (January 31, 2005).

65. CBS had received FCC authorization to provide Teletext service in 1983. Amendment of Part 73 to Authorize the Transmission of Teletext by T.V. Stations, BC Dkt. 81-741, RM-3747, RM 3876. The network continued to provide dual encoding on its Teletext service and line 21 for several more years. Ironically, in the 1990s, under CBS’s Director of Captioning Mark Turits, the network would become a leader in the provision of closed captioning, achieving 100% compliance with FCC captioning rules well before the agency’s deadlines.


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