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1. Extracts from the Institution des Sourds et Muets of Abbé de l’Epée, as translated by Francis Green. Published in the New England Palladium, 1803, reprinted in the American Annals of the Deaf 8 (1861): 9–10. The extracts were taken from the earlier work of the Abbé de l’Epée, writing that he did not incorporate into his first major description of his methods. As summarized in the Annals, the extracts appeared as a series in vol. 22 of the New England Palladium, a Boston newspaper.

2. Allan Taylor, American Colonies (New York: Penguin Putnam, 2001), x.

3. Kathy A. Jankowski, Deaf Empowerment: Emergence, Struggle, and Rhetoric (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1977).

4. See Harlan Lane, Richard C. Pillard, and Mary French. “Origins of the American Deaf-World: Assimilating and Differentiating Societies and Their Relation to Genetic Patterning” Sign Language Studies 1 (2000): 17–44.

5. C. G. Braddock, Notable Deaf Persons (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet College Alumni Press, 1975), 58.

6. Duane A. Cline, “Physical Appearances of Wampanoag Natives” in The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony, 1620,

7. W. H. Foote, Sketches of North Carolina, Historical and Biographical, Illustrative of the Principles of a Portion of Her Early Settlers (New York: Robert Carter, 1846), 98.

8. Foote, Sketches, 104.

9. J. E. Doan, “The Eagle Wing Expedition (1636) and the Settlement of Londonderry, New Hampshire: Two Episodes in Ulster-Scots/Scotch-Irish History” (written in 1719), Journal of Scotch-Irish Studies Contents 1:1–7.

10. Nora. E. Groce, Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language: Hereditary Deafness at Martha’s Vineyard (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985).

11. Margret A. Winzer, The History of Special Education: From Isolation to Integration (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1993), 85.

12. C. Eliot, ed., American Historical Documents: 1000–1904 (New York: Collier, 1910), 71.

13. T. G. Morton, The History of Pennsylvania Hospital 1751–1895 (Philadelphia: Times Printing House, 1897).

14. T. Gage, The history of Rowley, anciently including Bradford, Boxford, and Georgetown, from the year 1639 to the present time (Boston: Ferdinand Andrews, 1840), 72.

15. K. Silverman, The Life and Times of Cotton Mather (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), 34.

16. Alexander Graham Bell, “Historical Notes Concerning the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf,” Association Review 2 (1900): 35.

17. James Savage, A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England, Showing Three Generations of Those Who Came before May, 1692, on the Basis of Farmer’s Register (Boston, 1860–1862). Corrected electronic version copyright Robert Kraft, July 1994,

18. Cotton Mather, Magnalia Christi Americana, vol. 2, (New York: Russell and Russell, 1967), 495.

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