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Sign Language Studies

American Annals of the Deaf

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For “Children Who Vary from the Normal Type”: Special Education in Boston, 1838-1930
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1. For an in-depth examination of European efforts in deaf education and of the founding of the American School for the Deaf, see John V. Van Cleve and Barry A. Crouch, A Place of Their Own: Creating the Deaf Community in America (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1989), 1-46; and Margret Winzer, The History of Special Education: From Isolation to Integration (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1993), chapters 1-3.

2. Richard Winefield, Never the Twain Shall Meet (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1987), 6-8.

3. Ibid., 11-66, and Winzer, History of Special Education, 188-206, each offer detailed and clear accounts of the controversy. The most thorough and richly detailed account, however, is Douglas C. Baynton, Forbidden Signs: American Culture and the Campaign against Sign Language (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

4. Van Cleve and Crouch, A Place of Their Own, 71-105, provide specific information on the role of publications, associations, and Gallaudet University in advancing the cause of and providing forums for debate in deaf education.

5. Most of this discussion is based on Winzer, History of Special Education, 206-10;the quote is from p. 207.

6. See Ernest Freeberg, “‘More Important Than a Rabble of Common Kings’: Dr. Howe’s Education of Laura Bridgman,” History of Education Quarterly 34 (fall 1994): 305-27.

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