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Gaillard in Deaf America: A Portrait of the Deaf Community, 1917

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9. For the definitive narrative account of the development of schooling in the nineteenth century through 1918, see John W. Jones, “One Hundred Years of History in the Education of the Deaf in America and Its Present Status,” American Annals of the Deaf 63 (January 1918): 1–47 passim. On trends at the turn of the century, see Edward Allen Fay, “Progress of Speech Teaching in the United States,” American Annals of the Deaf 60 (January 1915): 115. For a compelling interpretive account that locates these trends in the context of intellectual and cultural shifts in the United States, begin with Douglas Baynton, Forbidden Signs: American Culture and the Campaign against Sign Language (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

10. Jones, “One Hundred Years,” 181–92. Research indicates that the 1870s were a pivotal decade for oralist approaches.

11. Fay, “Progress of Speech Teaching,” 115.

12. Some two dozen deaf adults, many graduates of ASD, were instrumental in founding many of the nation’s public schools, especially during the latter half of the nineteenth century. See, for example, Jack R. Gannon, Deaf Heritage: A Narrative History of Deaf America (Silver Spring, Md.: National Association of the Deaf, 1981), 18; Guilbert C. Braddock, Notable Deaf Persons (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet College Alumni Association, 1975), 150–51; Edmund Boatner, “Deaf Teachers of the Deaf,” Silent Worker, in vertical files: “Deaf Education,” GUAVF.

13. Jones, “One Hundred Years,” 7, 10–13.

14. For an astute analysis of Bell and the varied positions he so brilliantly espoused, begin with Baynton, Forbidden Signs, 30–31.

15. For a representative paper, see Edward Miner Gallaudet, “The Intermarriage of the Deaf and Their Education” Science 26 (8 November, 1890): 295–99.

16. On the ASD, see Job Williams, “The American Asylum,” in Histories of American Schools for the Deaf, 1817–1893, vol.1, ed. Edward A. Fay, (Washington D.C.: Volta Bureau, 1893). Regarding the number of states and schools, see Jones, “One Hundred Years,” 181–92.

17. Albert L. Crouter, “Changes of Method in the Pennsylvania Institution,” American Annals of the Deaf 46 (January 1901): 62–68.

18. Born in England in 1854, and a typesetter by training, Hodgson was deafened at age eighteen and hired as an instructor at Fanwood when he was twenty-two. From 1878 through 1933 he edited the venerable Deaf Mute’s Journal, arguably the deaf community’s most influential newspaper. On Hodgson, see “Hodgson, E.A., Editor,” in Gallaher, Representative Deaf Persons, 159–61; “Editor Hodgson,” Deaf Mute’s Journal (24 August , 1933): 2.

19. Editorial, Deaf Mute’s Journal (9 November, 1905): 2.

20. “Elmira Convention of Deaf Mutes,” American Annals of the Deaf 22 (October 1877): 251–52.