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The History of Inclusion in the United States

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1. William Sloan, Presidential Address, American Association on Mental Deficiency, Portland, Ore., May 24, 1963. In ARC Files, Archives and Library of the Coleman Institute on Cognitive Disabilities, University of Colorado.

2. Edwin W. Martin, Jr., “Breakthrough for the Handicapped: Legislative History,” Exceptional Children 34 (March 1968): 494–95.

3. President’s Committee, MR 76, 52–53, 105–25.

4. Ibid., 105–25, 165; Martin, “Breakthrough,” 495–501.

5. Trent, Feeble Mind, 266; Scheerenberger, History of Mental Retardation, 240–46; Mackie, Special Education, 37.

6. Trent, Feeble Mind, 250–66; Scheerenberger, History of Mental Retardation, 252; Burton Blatt and Fred Kaplan, Christmas in Purgatory: A Photographic Essay on Mental Retardation (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1966).

7. National Association for Retarded Children, “Give Thanks That Retarded Children Can Be Helped . . . By You: This Is Their Bill of Rights” (New York: author, August 1963), ARC Files, the Coleman Institute; National Association for Retarded Children, “The Basic Aims of the National Association for Retarded Children and the Current Prime Objectives” (New York: author, January 1966), ARC Files, the Coleman Institute, 6–7.

8. An excellent, concise discussion of the emergence of learning disabilities as a category of disability from which this brief summary is drawn can be found in Barry Franklin, From Backwardness to “At-Risk”: Childhood Learning Difficulties and the Contradictions of School Reform (Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1994), 49–77. See also Lester Mann, On the Trail of Process: A Historical Perspective on Cognitive Process and Their Training (New York: Grune and Stratton, 1979).

9. Franklin, From Backwardness 49–77.

10. For example, see James J. Gallagher, “The Special Education Contract for Mildly Handicapped Children,” Exceptional Children 38 (March 1972): 527–35; Florence Cristoplos and Paul Renz, “A Critical Examination of Special Education Programs,” The Journal of Special Education 3 (1969): 371–79; Lloyd M. Dunn, “Special Education for the Mildly Retarded—Is Much of It Justifiable?” Exceptional Children (September 1968): 5–22; Nikki Murdick, Barbara Gartin, and Terry Crabtree, Special Education Law (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merril, 2002), 55–74.

11. Seymour B. Sarason and Thomas Gladwin, “Psychological and Cultural Problems in Mental Subnormality: A Review of Research,” American Journal of Mental Deficiency 62 (May 1958): 1293.

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