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The History of Inclusion in the United States

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12. Burton Blatt, “Some Persistently Recurring Assumptions Concerning the Mentally Subnormal,” Training School Bulletin 57 (1960): 49–53. See also Samuel Kirk, “Experiments in the Early Training of the Mentally Retarded,” American Journal of Mental Deficiency 56 (1952): 692–700.

13. Mackie, Special Education, 36–40, 48.

14. Ibid., 44–45.

15. Ibid., 39, 5–6.

16. Ibid., 31–33, 44–45; Romaine Mackie, “Spotlighting Advances in Special Education,” Exceptional Children 32 (October 1965): 77–81; see, for example, State of Virginia, Services for Exceptional Children: A Guide for Program Improvement. Richmond, Va.: Special Education Service, State Department of Education, Volume 45, No. 3, October 1962.

17. Maynard C. Reynolds, “A Framework for Considering Some Issues in Special Education,” Exceptional Children 28 (March 1962): 367–70.

18. Ray H. Barsch, The Parent of the Handicapped Child: The Study of Child-Rearing Practices (Springfield, Ill.: Charles Thomas, 1968), 218–24.

19. Blatt, “Some Persistently Recurring Assumptions,” 49–58.

20. A comprehensive summary of such studies dating from the 1930s through the late 1960s is found in Walter J. Cegelka and James L. Tyler, “The Efficacy of Special Class Placement for the Mentally Retarded in Proper Perspective,” Training School Bulletin 67 (1970): 33–68. The references list to this article contains a comprehensive listing of efficacy studies carried out prior to 1970.

21. G. Orville Johnson, “Special Education for the Mentally Handicapped—A Paradox,” Exceptional Children 29 (October 1962): 65–66.

22. Dunn, “Special Education for the Mildly Retarded—Is Much of It Justifiable?” 5.

23. Ibid., 7–8.

24. Ibid., 6–9.

25. Ibid., 8–11.

26. Ibid., 11–21.


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