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The Human Right to Language: Communication Access for Deaf Children

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1. Elizabeth Flower and Murray G. Murphey, A History of Philosophy in America (New York: Putnam, 1977), 2:728–729, 751, 752.

2. Id. at 728–729.

3. Terrence W. Deacon, “Prefrontal Cortex and Symbol Learning: Why a Brain Capable of Learning Language Evolved Only Once,” in Communicating Meaning: The Evolution and Development of Language, ed. Boris M. Velichkovsky and Duane M. Rumbaugh (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1996), 105–106.

4. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., s.vv. “communication” and “language.”

5. See Anna-Miria Muhlke, “The Right to Language and Linguistic Development: Deafness from a Human Rights Perspective,” Virginia Journal of International Law 40 (2000): 705, 725.

6. Id. at 746–747.

7. Id. at 740.

8. Conversation with Dr. Rob Rosen, May 2006.

9. Muhlke, “The Right to Language and Linguistic Development,” 743–744.

10. Id. at 752; and South African Schools Act, 1996, as provided to author by Claudine Storbeck, March 28, 2005.

11. Ross E. Mitchell and others, “How Many People Use ASL in the United States?” February 21, 2005, 25–26,

12. 2002–2003 Regional and National Summary (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet Research Institute, 2003), 6.

13. Introduction to Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children & Youth (Washington D.C.: Gallaudet Research Institute, 2000),

14. Ross E. Mitchell and Michael A. Karchmer, “Demographics of Deaf Education: More Students in More Places,” American Annals of the Deaf 151 (2006): 100.

15. Pamela Knight and Ruth Swanwick, The Care and Education of a Deaf Child (Buffalo, N.Y.: Multilingual Matters, 1999), 166.

16. John Dewey, Philosophy and Civilization (New York: Minton, Balch & Co., 1931), 87.

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