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Sign Language Studies

American Annals of the Deaf

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Signs and Wonders: Religious Rhetoric and the Preservation of Sign Language
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Notes

1. Combinists subscribed to and employed the “combined method,” which utilized both manual and oral instruction. By the latter part of the nineteenth century, educators of deaf students who were formally pure manualists offered those students who would benefit from it instruction in speech and speechreading.

2. Van Cleve and Crouch, Place of Their Own, 112.

3. Weld, “American Asylum,” 107.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 108.

6. See Baynton, “ ‘Savages and Deaf-Mutes,’ ” 93; Van Cleve and Crouch, Place of Their Own, 106–27; Jankowski, Deaf Empowerment, 22.

7. Baynton, “ ‘Savages and Deaf-Mutes,’ ” 93.

8. Krentz, Mighty Change, 112; Van Cleve and Crouch, Place of Their Own, 112.

9. Van Cleve and Crouch, Place of Their Own, 114.

10. Jenkins, “Professor A. Graham Bell’s Studies on the Deaf,” 117.

11. Greenwald, “Taking Stock,” 137.

12. Van Cleve and Crouch, Place of Their Own, 115.

13. Edward Miner Gallaudet, “Combined System,” 257.

14. The role of the sanctuary (e.g., chapel services at residential schools for deaf students in the United States) in sustaining and advocating sign language is the subject of the following chapter.

15. Baynton, Forbidden Signs, 9.

16. See Baynton, “ ‘Savages and Deaf-Mutes,’ ” 98; Armstrong, Original Signs, 16–18; Stokoe, Language in Hand, 55.

17. Baynton, “ ‘Savages and Deaf-Mutes,’ ” 98.

18. Baynton, Forbidden Signs, 9.

19. Baynton, “ ‘Savages and Deaf-Mutes,’ ” 98.

20. Baynton, Forbidden Signs, 55.

21. Van Cleve and Crouch, Place of Their Own, 117.

22. Baynton, Forbidden Signs, 30.

23. Quoted in Van Cleve and Crouch, Place of Their Own, 146.

24. Ibid., 147.

25. Baynton, Forbidden Signs, 16.

26. Gallaudet, History of the College, 188.

27. Ibid., “Ideal School,” 282.

28. Quoted in Van Cleve and Crouch, Place of Their Own, 110.

29. Gallaudet, “Combined System,” 266.

30. Gallaudet, History of the College, 184.

31. Gallaudet, “Combined System,” 259.


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