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Women and Deafness: Double Visions

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13. Oralist superintendent of the New Jersey school, Alvin Pope, ultimately shut down this paper, run by George Porter, in 1929 because it challenged the oralist policies of the school too vehemently. This Little Paper Family (LPF) publication was not generally on the fence about oralism or Deaf values.

14. “Chicago’s Queen Challenges K.C.,” American Deaf Citizen, June 21, 1935, 1.

15. Digest of the Deaf, July 1939, cover, 10.

16. “Marion Rene: Night Club Dancer,” Digest of the Deaf, September 1939, 5.

17. Obie A. Nunn, “Virginia Girl Is Beauty Queen,” Silent Worker 6, no. 3 (1953): 8.

18. “Mary Beth Barber,” Deaf American 38, no. 8 (1981): 7–8.

19. See B. S__ky, “Matrimony from an Unmarried Girl’s Point of View,” Volta Review 26, no. 4 (1924): 205, and John A. Ferrall, “How to Be Beautiful, Though Deaf,” Volta Review 26, no. 5 (1924): 258.

20. Volta Review (June 1924): 9. Although similar in mindset to hearing contestants, deaf beauties appreciated the contests for added reasons. Because many girls had vocational training in the art of beauty—cosmetology, hairdressing, and dressmaking—the competitions allowed them to demonstrate their own handiwork as well as their figures.

21. Lillian Dorethelia Jenkins, “A Survey of Vocational Training in Cosmetology for Deaf Girls in the United States” (MS thesis, University of Tennessee, 1954).

22. “Miss Deaf America Pageant History,” http://www.uad.org/mdup/mdap_history.htm (accessed January 25, 2005). In 1976, the NAD dropped the term “talent” from the title, making it resemble the Miss America contest more.

23. Billington sang vocally and with signs. “Hey, Look Me Over,” Gallaudet News February 8, 1972, 2. See also Gallaudet University Archives, Biographical file: Ann Billington.

24. Ruthie Sandefur, director, “Welcome to a Starry Night,” Gallaudet University Archives, Subject file: Beauty Pageants.

25. July 2, 1978, letter to Miss Deaf America contestants, Brochure, Gallaudet University Archives, Subject file: Beauty Pageants.

26. Deaf American, April 1972, 12.

27. Between 1972 and 1984, two of the eight winners gave up their role because of marriage. However, some more local competitions did allow married women to compete.

28. Susan Daviduff, Miss Deaf America, 1976–78, “Sing a Sign,” Brochure, Gallaudet University Archives, Subject file: Beauty Pageants.


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