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Gaillard in Deaf America: A Portrait of the Deaf Community, 1917

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1. My appreciation to Ivey Pittle Wallace and John Van Cleve for their support and incisive editorial suggestions. My thanks to Susan Burch at Gallaudet University for her helpful reading and to Anne Quartararo at the United States Naval Academy for her references regarding Gaillard. As always, Michael Olson at the Gallaudet University Archives provided prompt and thorough assistance.

2. Jean Olivier was the secretary general of the Fraternal Association of the Deaf of Champagne; Edmond Pilet was the secretary general of the National Union of the French Associations of the Deaf; and Eugene Graff was president of the Paris Deaf Center.

3. For information on Howard, see Wesley Lauritsen, �The Minnesota School for the Deaf,� 1963, Gallaudet University Archives Vertical File (hereafter GUAVF); [eulogy] �J.C. Howard,� Companion (February 1946): 10; J. Schuyler Long, The Deaf in Business: J. Cooke Howard Financier,�  Silent Worker (June 1901):145�46; James E. Gallaher, ed., Representative Deaf Persons of the United States (Chicago: James E. Gallaher, 1898), 112�14.

4. Clerc was born in La Balme, France, in December 1785. He first attended school at age twelve, where he studied with Superintendent Abb� Sicard. By twenty-one he was appointed as a teacher and ten years later, at age thirty-one, he met Thomas Gallaudet and agreed to leave for the United States. He died in Hartford at the age of eighty-three, after an unparalleled career as an esteemed intellectual, teacher, administrator, and role model. For biographical information begin with Harlan Lane�s sweeping overview in When the Mind Hears (New York: Random House, 1984), Part one passim. A brief but helpful account is available in John Van Cleve and Barry Crouch, A Place of Their Own (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1989), 37�45. Finally, an indispensable source is Clerc�s own biographical account. See Laurent Clerc, �Laurent Clerc� in Tribute to Gallaudet: A Discourse in Commemoration of the Life, Character and Services of the Reverend Thomas H. Gallaudet L.L.D., ed. Henry Barnard (Hartford, Conn.: Brockett & Hutchinson, 1852), 106�16.

This volume also contains useful information regarding Thomas Gallaudet. In addition, consult, Edward Miner Gallaudet, Life of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet: Founder of Deaf-Mute Instruction in America (New York: Henry Holt, 1888); Heman Humphrey, The Life and Labors of the Reverend T. H. Gallaudet (New York: Robert Carter & Brothers, 1857).

5. For biographical information on Gaillard, begin with Anne Quartararo, �Republicanism, Deaf Identity, and the Career of Henri Gaillard in Late-Nineteenth-Century France,� in Deaf History Unveiled: Interpretations from the New Scholarship, ed. John Van Cleve (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1993), 40�52. See also, M. Pr�vost, Roman d'Amat H. Tribout de Morembert et JP Lobies, Dictionnaire de Biographie Fran�aise (Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Ane, 1980), 85.

6. For a brief but helpful historical discussion of efforts to educate deaf students, first in Europe and then the United States, begin with Van Cleve and Crouch, A Place of Their Own, 1�28.

7. Within the American deaf community, for example, deaf men and women donated funds through the NAD that were used to provide two ambulances for France. In addition, deaf adults also collaborated with their hearing peers at the local level to contribute to various war drives. See Robert Buchanan, Illusions of Equality: Deaf Americans in School and Factory, 1850�1950 (Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1999), 73.

8. On instruction at the Hartford school, see Job Williams, A Brief History of the American Asylum at Hartford for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb (Hartford, Conn.: Case, Lockwood and Brainard, 1893).

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